Casey Schmitt kicked off the week with a discussion of doing research in Seville, Spain. Hannah Bailey continued our forum yesterday, with a discussion of research in France. I’m going to continue the conversation with reflections on doing research in London. (For those interested in research gear, see my post from last summer.) Since there are quite a few archives libraries and archives that are potentially of interest to Early Americanists, I will primarily focus on the logistics, such as navigating London and finding accommodations. I’ve provided basic information on a few major archives near the end.
Before You Go:
Documents: Many of the larger UK archives will ask researchers to provide both proof of residence and a photo ID. Some repositories may want to see a letter of introduction, which introduces you as a scholar and briefly summarizes your research. This letter should be on departmental letterhead, and come from your supervisor if you are a grad student, or your chair (or a colleague) if you have finished your PhD. You may also be asked to provide passport photos for your reader’s card, so it may be worth having some taken before you leave.
Accessories: If you are using a digital camera, I also recommend purchasing extra batteries and memory cards in advance of your trip. It will be less expensive than having to do it in London. Consider purchasing a plug adaptor. (Note: most laptops, tablets, cell phones, and Mp3 players will tolerate the higher London voltage, but the adaptor will not convert the voltage. For high-energy devices like hair dryers or electric shavers, I recommend buying a UK appliance once you get to the UK. Many converters do a poor job of converting for these devices, and no one wants their day to start in a rain of sparks.) If forget adaptors, you can purchase them inexpensively in Boots – the chain is ubiquitous in London, but among other places, there is one in the strip mall a few blocks from the National Archives.
Navigation: It may also be worth purchasing a copy of London A to Z, which is an atlas of London.
Money: Note that many British retailers now require a credit card with a chip and pin (or EWV system) and may no longer accept older “swipe” cards. UK ATMs accept most debit cards, and frequently, cash withdrawals will give you the best exchange rate, but check with your bank about fees before you go. It is wise to start off with about £50 in cash before you leave, just to cover any initial expenses before you have a chance to get cash.
Safety: For the most part, London is a very safe city. I have walked around at night, by myself, with no problems. Just be mindful of your surroundings. As is typical of larger cities, London does have a problem with pickpockets. Get yourself a secured pouch or slash-proof bag to store your cash, credit cards, and documents. (For women; some unisex options; and if you really want to make sure no one’s going to go digging, behold the anti-theft underwear!)
Among the biggest challenges is that London is a very expensive city, and academic schedules mean that research trips take place during peak season, when air fares and accommodations are at their most expensive. Planning well ahead can save you a lot of money. The more desirable accommodations can be booked up as early as March.
Let me start first by discussing transportation around London. After you have cleared Customs (Global Entry recommended), you have a few options for getting into central London. While the thought of pouring yourself into a cab to go right to your destination might be tempting – especially if you’ve come in on a red eye flight – you should be aware that cabs are very expensive. You could easily wind up with a £140 (approx. 200 USD) cab fare (plus tip – tipping is less common in the UK, but a 10% tip on a cab fare is expected). The least expensive option is to take the Tube right from the airport. You can purchase an Oyster Card (the stored value ticket) at the airport, but the line (queue) can be long. You may wish to order one from in advance of your trip. I recommend a starting balance of at least £30. You can add money to your Oyster Card later. You can also take the Heathrow Express to Paddington Station, and either take a cab or the Tube to your final destination. Some Tube Stations do have a lot of stairs, so be mindful of that when packing. While you are in London, the Tube will likely be your primary source of transportation. (Point of London etiquette: Make sure you stay to the right on all stairs. Point of safety for many of those coming from outside Britain: Don’t forget to look to your right before stepping into cross walks.)
Accommodations can depend both on which archives you need to visit, the length of your stay, and your budget. Having access to kitchen facilities can be a big savings. I brought peanut butter and jelly sandwiches for my lunch most days, and frozen meals from Marks and Spencer Simply Food for dinner. Researchers who will primarily be based at the National Archives will want to check out the Kew accommodations website, which is a list of Kew-adjacent residents who let out a room or in-law flat in their private homes. Those whose research endeavors will keep them closer to Central London have a couple of options. The first is that many London universities rent out rooms in their residence halls during the summer months. On one of my trips, I stayed at the University of the Arts’ Manna Ash House, which is located just a few blocks from the Southwark Tube Station and about a 10 minute walk from Waterloo Station. It is a secure building. The rooms have kitchen and laundry facilities, as well as private ensuite bathrooms. It is also walkable to the Lambeth Palace Library and the Parliamentary Archives. Other options include Doctor in the House (essentially, Air BnB for academics), AirBnB, or Rentalo (which also offers apartment rentals). Note: Some accommodations have free wireless or offer wireless for an additional cost, but there are also internet cafes all over London, where you can access the internet inexpensively.
When You Arrive:
Transit: Familiarize yourself with the Tube. If you have purchased an Oyster Card in advance, top it off with enough of a balance to last you a week so that you avoid rush hour queues at the stations. As noted above, cabs are very expensive and should be used sparingly, if at all.
Phones: Even if your phone is unlocked, a North American cell phone might not work in the UK. The only way to check is to buy a UK SIM card and swap it out. If you are in London for more than a few days, you may find it more cost-effective to buy a basic disposable cell phone. Carphone Warehouse has a wide range of carriers (including pay-as-you go SIM cards) and a number of locations around the city. Some plans will let you call back to the US and Canada for a few pence a minute at certain times a day. Consider what you need in terms of minutes and data. You can buy smart phones, but I usually just purchase a plan for calls and texting.
Food: London is awash in great restaurants and pubs, but research budgets rarely permit eating out every day. Making your own food (self-catering) is among the better cost-saving measures. The main supermarket chains are Tesco, Sainsbury’s, and Waitrose. Waitrose is usually the most expensive of the three. I have found that Sainsbury’s has the best variety. As noted above, you can also purchase prepared meals at Marks and Spencer Simply Food (or Pret-a-Manger). Boots Pharmacy is usually the best place to purchase toiletries.
This is not an exhaustive list, but notes a few major archives that may be of particular interest to Early Americanists. Please note that all fees in the descriptions below are accurate as of May 2016. You should be prepared to pay any photography or other research-related fees in cash. UK ATMs accept most American debit cards, and cash withdrawals often have the most favorable exchange rates, but you should verify fees with your home bank before you go (and also inform them that you will be in the UK).
National Archives (Open Tues. – Sat.; see website for details)
Nearest Tube Station: Kew Gardens (District Line)
Online Catalog: Discovery (You can also find records from archives around the UK.)
Notes: While you don’t need an appointment, it is important to get there right at opening to secure a spot during peak summer months. If it is your first time, or you haven’t been in a while, you will need to register for a reader’s card. You will need a photo ID and separate proof of address. Flash-free photography is permitted as preservation allows. The NAUK has a limited number of photography stands for researcher use. Free wifi is available. There is a cafe onsite.
The Discovery catalog gives you two options. The first allows you to limit your search to NAUK holdings (Discovery is a central catalog that will allow you to search multiple UK archives at once). The second allows you to limit your search to documents that have already been digitized. Your search results will include a call number that tells you the record group and manuscript ID. For example CO = Colonial Office. TS = Treasury. HCA = High Court of Admiralty. SP = State Papers. There is a menu to the left that lets you filter your results by year range, record group, geographic location, etc. Click on individual manuscript numbers to request retrieval of documents.
British Library (Open Mon. – Sat.; see website for details)
Nearest Tube Station: King’s Cross/St. Pancras (Piccadilly or Victoria Lines)
Online Catalogs: Variable
Notes: The main branch is the St. Pancras location. You will need to register for a reader’s card in advance. Bring a photo ID and a separate document with proof of address. As with the National Archives, you should plan to get there early during peak summer months. Note that the BL has 11 reading rooms that specialize in different areas. You may need to change reading rooms, depending on what you are looking at. Flash-free digital photography is permitted, but researchers should get the reference staff’s permission on individual manuscripts first. Wireless access is available for registered readers, and the Library has recently added eduroam. Bring a £1 coin with you. Although this system is changing over, some lockers require a £1 deposit, which is returned when you return your locker key. There is a cafe and restaurant onsite.
Parliamentary Archives (Open Mon. – Fri.; by appointment only)
Nearest Tube Station: Westminster (District and Circle Lines)
Online Catalog: Portcullis
Notes: Researchers need to make an appointment at least 2 working days in advance. Plan further ahead during busy summer months. Entrance is through the Black Rod’s Garden Entrance unless otherwise instructed. A photo ID is required for entry. Security is tight, so expect to go through a screening and to wait for an escort to and from the reading room. Flash-free photography is permitted for a fee of £7.50 per day. The reading room has free wireless for researchers with their own laptops.
Portcullis, the Parliament Archives’ catalog allows researchers to search via keyword and by record group. You can also narrow your search by date range.
Lambeth Palace Library (Open Tues., Weds., Fri – 10-4; Thurs., 10-7:30)
Nearest Tube Station: Lambeth North (Bakerloo Line)
Online Catalogs: Variable
Notes: The Lambeth Palace Library is the Library of the Archdiocese of London. A photo ID and proof of address (must be separate documents) are required. I recommend emailing in advance to request records. You will need to apply for a reading ticket on your first visit. It is valid for two years thereafter. Flash-free digital photography of materials is permitted as preservation allows, but photographic equipment must be completely silenced. There is a daily photography fee of £5.
As with the British Library, most researchers will primarily use the manuscripts and archives catalog. The interface is very similar to the one used by Parliamentary Archives, but also has an option to search their Names and Places databases.
Wellcome Library (Open Mon.-Sat.; see webpage for hours)
Nearest Tube Station: Euston Square (East London, Hammersmith & City, and Metropolitan Lines)
Online Catalogs: Variable
Wellcome’s interface is very user-friendly and allows researchers to select from different catalogs. They provide a guide to help researchers decide which catalog to use, or an option to search across multiple catalogs simultaneously.
Are there other London area archives you’ve used? Share your tips below?